Arizona: Indian Removal or Modern-Day Reducciones?

An Open Letter to Arizona’s Tom Horne, John Huppenthal, Russell Pearce, Joe Arpaio and Jan Brewer: An Appeal to Your Conscience and Your Humanity

Some people say that as Arizona’s top leaders, you are actively engaged in an unprecedented ethnic cleansing campaign against the red-brown peoples of this state.

No doubt you not only disagree, but you take umbrage because you perhaps consider yourself part of a movement that is concerned primarily with national security, with sealing the porous U.S./Mexico border, with mounting campaigns against illegal immigration, and lastly, with promoting the virtues of U.S. culture, a culture that you fear is being eroded daily by invading and uncontrolled hordes from south of the border. On top of this, you most likely believe that this invasion is bankrupting the nation, financially, culturally and spiritually.

And yet, I’m sure you are aware that on Dec 31, one of you, outgoing state schools superintendant of schools, Tom Horne, is set to declare Tucson’s K-12 Mexican American Studies program to be out of compliance with HB 2281, Arizona’s anti-ethnic studies law that goes into effect the very next day.

Despite this, you cannot see how this can be interpreted as being part of an ethnic cleansing campaign? Let me offer each of you a pair of huaraches or mocatzin. This might permit you to understand why many of us believe this is so. You have no interest in wearing huaraches or mocassins? That’s OK. Keep your boots on while I offer an explanation.

Part of the problem in debating these issues is that we utilize different vocabularies and we also live different realities. Yet the problem is actually beyond language. You need to walk in our shoes or you need to have the experience of being singled out because of our red-brown skin to be able to understand why we view the world differently and why we interpret your movement to be inimical to our very existence.

Let me offer alternative terminology for what you are doing. I would argue that what you are engaged in is not so much ethnic cleansing, but a continuation of the colonial policies of reducciones – a project carried out by the Spanish empire in the Americas during the 1500s-1800s. This included the region that is today called the U.S. Southwest.

Never heard of it? They were akin to this nation’s Indian Removal policies of the 19th century. Tied to them were the Indian Boarding Schools. Indian Removal either constituted outright genocide or forced migrations. This resulted in land loss and the de-rooting of peoples that had been living in what is today the United States for many thousands of years. The philosophical foundation for the boarding schools was: “kill the Indian, save the man.” Translated, it amounted to both Christianization and Americanization. It was predicated on the idea that American Indians were savage and godless and needed saving.

The policy of reducciones was something similar: “Kill the Indian; create a Christian.”

This project was also predicated on the idea that Indigenous peoples were savage, godless… and demonic. A debate raged throughout the 1500s as to whether Indigenous peoples had souls, whether they were actually human and whether they were entitled to full human rights. Not coincidentally, the debate is reminiscent of the one we hear today about “illegal aliens.” The stark difference was that then, most Europeans taking part in it were convinced that the culture(s) of the peoples of the Americas were literally derived from the devil.

Along with genocide and land theft, the primary objective of the reducciones was to generally wipe out all vestiges of Indigenous culture, history and memory and convert the people into Christians. This included physically destroying temples, schools, murals, libraries etc. It also included massive book burnings – because books, along with knowledge of the calendars (math, science and astronomy), plants and foods, were thought to be “things of the devil.”

From this sordid history came a system of European jurisprudence that determined what was legal/legitimate, what constituted knowledge, who was human (even who/what was beautiful) and who was entitled to full human rights. Despite rosy accounts written by Europeans, the same or similar dynamic has been in play on this continent for these past 518 years, involving: who is entitled to full human rights and who is welcome. At different times, the answer has been Christians, Europeans, Caucasians, human beings, the civilized, the pure bred, those with reason/intelligence, literate peoples and nowadays, citizens. Those cast outside of this net have been: Indigenous peoples, so-called pagans, savages and mongrels, non-Europeans, the uncivilized, the racially, culturally and spiritually impure, the “illiterate” and always the “foreigners.” It is these peoples whom have historically been denied their basic human rights and freedoms.

Unlike those who think that what has been happening in Arizona is an aberration, it is actually in line with the history of the continent over the past 500 years.

Racial profiling? That is the history of this continent. Denial of history and culture? That too is the norm.

Embedded in the memory of Mexican Americans (Central and South Americans also) is always the continual need to prove our humanity. In the eyes of the law, we have never been human enough. Not American enough. Not loyal enough. Not pure enough. Not legal enough. Not legitimate enough. Even in the realm of language, neither our English or Spanish have ever been good enough.

And how can we forget; despite our color, and despite our 7,000-year maiz-based culture that can be traced to this very continent, we neither are Indigenous enough.

So when you enact laws that require us to prove our citizenship, when you enact laws that forbid us from learning our thousands-of-year cultures from this very continent, then you give us but one clear message: the need to once again prove our humanity. You also send out another message: not welcome. But you seem not content with sending that message either. Next is the Arizona nullification of birthright citizenship and the 14th amendment. And subsequently, you now want children to also turn in their own parents.

You question our humanity? Step back and examine what it is you are doing. Your attacks are relentless, but very much in line with what we are accustomed to. You want our souls? You can’t have them. You seem to be obsessed with completing that imperial project begun some 518 years ago. But not even a thousand laws can wipe out our memories and no amount of demonization and no amount of misinformation or miseducation can sever our connection to this land. And thus we see the frustration in your faces and hear your message about trying to get rid of as many of us as possible and about keeping our history and culture at home.

We already did that for many hundreds of years. What is it about knowledge that you fear? Do you fear another narrative – a narrative much older than the Pilgrim story? Why do you fear us and our ancient Indigenous knowledge?

Do you fear the maiz-based philosophical concepts of In Lak Ech, Panche Be and Hunab Ku?

Do you actually fear that we teach our kids to see themselves in everyone else – a philosophy that promotes love, justice and equality, not hate and inequality? Do you actually fear that we teach kids to pursue the truth – critical thinking – as opposed to blind acceptance of oft-repeated myths about this continent and this country? And do you fear that we teach our children that they are no less or no better than anyone else – that we are all created equal – as opposed to teaching them that they have savage and demonic roots?

Why indeed do you fear this program? Because it graduates 97.5% of all of its students? Do you fear that if this success is replicated nationwide, that there will be no one left to pick the crops? You seem to want us in a permanent state of subservience, if you want us at all. You seem to want us to lose our memories and to lose our identities and our connection to this land as the price of admission to this society. You seem to want us, fear us and despise us all at the same time. And still, we love this land. Does this puzzle you?

I appeal to your conscience and your own humanity: Why not welcome us as peoples with open arms. And why not embrace this program; it creates top-notch students and beautiful human beings. Is that not the purpose of education?

Roberto Rodriguez, a professor at the University of Arizona, can be reached at: Read other articles by Roberto.

10 comments on this article so far ...

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  1. mary said on January 1st, 2011 at 9:13am #

    A blogger writes


  2. jcrit said on January 1st, 2011 at 5:33pm #

    Kudos to Tucson Unified School District for supporting La Raza. As for Horne, et. al., There is little time left to waste on their ilk, as the damage caused by their neo-Manifest Destiny ways is very great. You are very generous to have given them this open letter. Divine justice will be done for the oppressed and the oppressors, and soon.

    Thank you for sharing.

  3. hayate said on January 1st, 2011 at 7:13pm #

    “An Appeal to Your Conscience and Your Humanity”

    This is like leftists writing a letter to the nazi establishment of 1930’s Germany appealing to their “conscience and humanity”.

    It’s a waste of time, the freaks don’t have a conscience and their humanity is that of a cannibal. You don’t negotiate with these things, you remove them from society entirely and put them in prison where they belong.

  4. Liberte said on January 1st, 2011 at 8:54pm #

    I don’t know what is going on over there. Also, I am firmly against pushing people around. I want to start with that foundation so my post does not upset anyones sensibilities.

    But what if Arpaio was to write back to you and state,

    Dear concerned citizen,

    Our efforts to curtail this influx of Southern neighbors does not in anyway result from any ill will towards said neighbors. We have recently become aware that the zionists that control our Federal government have deliberately made our borders – as you say – porus. This strategy has deliberately been employed by Zionists (aka Bolsheviks) for over a century at least. By overloading a region with foreign immigrants Zionists are able to exploit and defeat local efforts of Zionist resistance later down the road. Observe the Czarist propaganda poster in the link provided at the bottom of this letter. Within that image you will note that the Bolsheviks cleverly manipulated the Mongolians to aid them in their revolution. Few realize exactly how much worse conditions in Russia and surrounding areas were after the revolution due to the Zionist media control within the US and UK. We wish to prevent that for the citizens in our existing state, both white and brown. Best Wishes


    (Link to Image),r:7,s:35&tx=66&ty=93

  5. Liberte said on January 1st, 2011 at 9:12pm #

    Or of course, Arpaio might also write back,

    Dear concerned citizen,

    We are just doing what our Zionist masters tell us to do. They are, on the one hand, creating economic, political and therefore criminal turmoil in the Southern region to drive our neighbors North. On the other hand they ask us to refuse their immigration, thereby establishing the hegelian dialectic that our financial masters use as often as I use pink underwear to humiliate my petty crime prisoners. Thank you for letter and participation in Democracy(tm). Best wishes.


    ( Could be either of those, I really don’t know which)

  6. Mulga Mumblebrain said on January 1st, 2011 at 11:24pm #

    Not that long ago there was a brief period when race hatred was pretty universally abhorred, and racist states such as apartheid South Africa were pariahs. But all the time the racists were lurking, under their rocks, waiting for the time when they could re-emerge. And they had one stalwart ally, an immensely powerful one, the embodiment of race hatred and xenophobia-Zionism. When Israel decided to convert its money power in the West into total political dominance, it gave racists everywhere, even those who hate Jews, a real fillip. Israel had to cut its long time ally South Africa adrift, but it made certain that the ANC and Mandela et al sold out the South African non-whites and economic power remained firmly in the hands of the white elites and a tiny black Quisling caste.
    After 9/11, which I suggest it is pretty plain was a Mossad black-flag op, the Zionists raised their campaign of hatred against Islam and Moslems to a pitch not often seen before in history. For decades already the Jew-controlled Hollywood movie industry had portrayed Moslems and Arabs as savage, evil, beasts, in a manner that even the German Nazis might have felt squeamish about. But after 9/11 the thin veneer of ‘civilization’ that cloaks Western barbarism was cast aside, with Judeofascists right to the fore. We had articles praising torture, with the imbecile hypocrisy of the Israeli ‘ticking bomb’ excuse pushed. Certain ninth rate ‘academics’ here made themselves useful to the Zionazis by even extending this evil doctrine to approval for torturing the relatives of ‘terrorists’, surely a low even for a depraved society such as the Zionazi controlled West. And this filth was actually published, in a Murdoch rag, naturally.
    Naturally, when race hatred is so obviously successful and thoroughly enjoyable for the Zionazis, other Nazi scum are emboldened. The true essence of ‘Western Civilization’, as practised by the ruling Western elites is hatred of the other, and other manifestations of psychopathy. It takes many concrete forms, from religious exclusivity and xenophobia, the capitalist’s greed, unscrupulousness and enthusiasm for exploitation of others, to delusions of civilizational superiority and the absolute delight in sating one’s bloodlust on defenceless civilian populations. One need only look to the appalling and preposterous Western farce of the so-called Nobel Peace Prize, awarded to a brutal, murderous, coward like Obama, even as his terror strikes by drone inflicted mounting horror and terror on innocent Pakistanis and Afghans.
    The West, it is said, is crumbling and the East rising. That prospect should fill us with dread, because the Yankee Reich, and all those honorary Yanks who infest the power structures of Western countries, and who owe their prime allegiance, not to their countries, but to the cappo in Washington and the Herrenvolk in Tel Aviv and Herzaliya who control him, would rather destroy the planet than give up their dominance and power of life and death. War between China and the USA is not likely, not even probable-it is certain.

  7. PatrickSMcNally said on January 2nd, 2011 at 1:12am #

    > Or of course, Arpaio might also write back

    With a silly letter like that he could easily just write back and point out that mortality rates among Russians actually were much higher under the Czarist social order and that the life expectancy of Russians sharply increased in the developed Soviet economy. It isn’t necessary to be apolegetic for the purges in the 1930s to realize that recycling Right-wing myths does no good for anyone. Even an ideologue like Solzhenitsyn when recalling personal experiences from the time of the purges recalled the sense that “the brightest of futures lay ahead.” That kind of optimism was possible because most Russians were living better in 1938 than in 1913, despite the unnecessary executions carried out in the purges.

    Of coursse anyone silly enough to repeat the Bolsheviks-were-Zionists canard is already divorced from reality.

  8. jcrit said on January 2nd, 2011 at 8:31am #

    Anyone got a good recipe for frito pie?

  9. 3bancan said on January 2nd, 2011 at 9:29am #

    PatrickSMcNally said on January 2nd, 2011 at 1:12am #
    “Of coursse anyone silly enough to repeat the Bolsheviks-were-Zionists canard is already divorced from reality”
    Typical zionazi speak…

  10. bozh said on January 2nd, 2011 at 11:29am #

    people still call people names. in spite of the fact that labeling does not and cannot ever proffer us an elucidation.
    so, ‘jews’ ARE, communists, bolsheviks, zionists. and then ignore what ‘jews’, talmud, and torah say.
    The knowledge about all ‘jews’ is in observing what they do—and solely what they do!
    and after seeing what some of them do, say, in palestina, we conclude or extrapolate from know facts what the ‘jews’ in question wld do in future.

    that to me is the sane way of thinking. give me the facts and i can make my own conclusions from them> and give me all salient facts that pertain; not just the ones to support ur predilections!

    and what some ‘jews’ do in u.s. or palestina appears very pleasing to the two gods, yahweh and american god.

    one day american god may get angry with yahweh, the ‘jewish’ god. but when? i don’t know!
    however, judging by how u.s. supremacists behave, it won’t happen in decades yet!

    those people who blame much or solely ‘jews’ for ills that befall us shld call on pious people to stop following their priests; pols also!
    so let’s attack priestly doings also! if we don’t, and leave some 5-6bn frightened people in their hands, what can we expect but the same results or worse! tnx