Is Injecting Graphene Oxide into Our Bodies Safe?

There are plenty of academic studies into the toxicity of graphene oxide, including:

Zhang et al., “Unraveling Stress-Induced Toxicity Properties of Graphene Oxide and the Underlying Mechanism,” 24 August 2012: “Graphene oxide shows stress-induced toxicity properties in vivo under different pathophysiological conditions.”

Rhazouani et al., “Synthesis and Toxicity of Graphene Oxide Nanoparticles: A Literature Review of In Vitro and In Vivo Studies,” BioMed Research International Review article, 2021: “… the toxic effect of GO [graphene oxide] on living cells and organs is a limiting factor that limits its use in the medical field.”

Allen Forrest is a writer, painter, graphic artist and activist. He has created covers and illustrations for literary publications and books, is the winner of the Leslie Jacoby Honor for Art at San Jose State University's Reed Magazine for 2015, and his Bel Red landscape paintings are part of the Bellevue College Foundation's permanent art collection in Bellevue, WA. He lives in Vancouver, BC, Canada. Read other articles by Allen, or visit Allen's website.