Media Plays ‘Make-Up Artist’ for Officer Johannes Mehserle (Oscar Grant’s Killer)

The media’s the most powerful entity on earth. They have the power to make the innocent guilty and to make the guilty innocent, and that’s power.
— Malcolm X, The Power of Media (1964)

… The cops be trying to pop and lock me/
They cocky, plus they mentality is Nazi/
The way they treat blacks, I wanna snap like paparazzi/
— Hip-Hop artist Common, Real People, Be (2005)

… The media be crucifying brothers severely/
— Tupac, “Blasphemy,” The Don Killuminati: The 7 Day Theory (1996)

Only in a failed media state is an innocent peace-maker, with a knee to his head and palms pressed upon his back, deemed the perpetrator of his own death in an execution. This is the story of Oscar Grant III – the murdered 21-yr-old Oakland father. In a rush to reverse the graphic images, caught on tape, the mainstream media, and its companions, have sought to diminish the credibility of Mr. Grant, and exonerate, before legal trial, Officer Johannes Mehserle of all wrongdoing in the death of Oscar Grant.

Borrowing predictable moves from the old playbook, CNN, MSNBC and FOX News (and their many affiliated siblings) have all reported that Oscar Grant supposedly had a (police) record, and thus, somehow – logic be damned! – culpable in his own death. Those who payed keen attention during the Sean Bell fiasco are well aware of this trend. As Sean Bell’s precious body was riddled by the 50 bullets of four New York police officers on duty that November night (the eve of his wedding), and the inexcusable homicide of Bell was sentenced justly in the court of public opinion, mainstream media channels, with unseemly haste, were swift in reminding viewers that Sean Bell, and his counterparts, possessed a criminal record. It’s a rehashed move to lessen the humanity of the unjustifiably murdered, and diminish the extent of criminality – how logical.

Soon after commercial news channels found the shooting of Oscar Grant too popular to disregard (with over a million hits on YouTube, of mind-gripping cell-phone documentaries of the incident), it was no shocker to see them (our dependable news-source) report of the death-threats Officer Mehserle has received, ever since (Death threats, who could imagine?). Noting how Mehserle has been forced to take a paid-leave (poor him), move twice to different residential locations, and receive police protection, it became a sort of chorus, sang by pundits who find no cause of concern in the unprovoked shooting of an unarmed Black man, and received ample airplay on cable, national and local news outlets. Defending the officer’s actions, they have helped circulate the laughable (though, not that funny) report – 6 days after Grant’s death – that he (a two-year veteran of the transit agency), in fact, confused his taser for a gun.

The mainstream channels have deemed Oscar Grant’s behavior “threatening” to the officers who exercised full control over his handcuffed, subdued body. They have justified his death with unsubstantiated (and erroneous) reports of his participation in the scuffle, which ultimately ended his life. Oakland District 6 Council member, Desley Brooks, took note of this trend in a press-conference on Wednesday, January 7th 2009: “We [the community) want to be very clear to you, the media. We would not tolerate you criminalizing the victim, and making the suspect somehow victimized. The news that is being portrayed today is that this poor officer, who executed a father who begged for his life, that he is in protective custody. My question is, ‘Who was there to protect Oscar Grant, when he was shot?’”

Indeed, the “protect and serve” force was less interested in being forthright about the shooting, and waited several days, similar to the MSNBC-Imus incident, to see if it would ever yield any traction. As told by citizen-journalists across the country, the officers involved in the execution of Oscar Grant confiscated all cell-phones and video cameras thought to contain documentary of the shooting – purportedly for “evidence”-gathering purposes. The mainstream media has failed to report that.

What is certainly clear from this ordeal, is that mainstream media – which insists we live in a “post-racial” era – is not only a disseminator of untruths and prevarication, but also operates antithetically to the interests of everyday people. The mainstream press corps has failed to – just as in the cases of Abner Louima, Sean Bell, Amadou Diallo, Baron “Scooter” Pikes, Ronnie White, Kathryn Johnston, Michael Stewart, Bobby Hutton, Fred Hampton Jr., etc. – keep track of the lovely widow, and four-year-old daughter of Oscar Grant. Dead Prez was right: “You can’t fool all the people all of the time/ But if you fool the right ones, then the rest will fall behind/ … For your TV screen, is telling lies to your vision.”

Tolu Olorunda is a writer and cultural critic currently living in Detroit. He is also author of The Substance of Truth (Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2011), a collection of essays on education, culture, and society. His writing has appeared widely online and in print. He can be reached at: Read other articles by Tolu.

39 comments on this article so far ...

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  1. Ned Lud said on January 10th, 2009 at 9:38am #

    I’m just a farmer, but when I stood up (for my rights against property damage and unjust demands on my livelihood) to my supposedly benign/friendly ‘organic co-operative’ (Organic Valley) they ignored me and finally refused to pick up my milk, labeling me a troublemaker. Call their farmer hotline at 1-888-809-9297, ask for Doran Holm and ask him to explain why they treated a certain west central Mn farmer the way they did. You will get a storyline about what a bad person I am and how they did ‘everything’ they could, but I was just so unreasonable. We are living in Amerika, where perception management by the liars cancels out truth. God help us all…

  2. robertP said on January 10th, 2009 at 10:57am #

    It was a tragic mistake. He meant to tase the criminal. He is guilty of 2nd or 3rd degree involuntary manslaughter. He has lost his job, he has lost his livelihood and the tragedy will follow him the rest of his life. The Family’s blood sucking personal injury trial lawyer should be put in Jail
    Oakland should sue him for all riot damage and containment cost. He is personally responsible for fanning the flames.
    The officer made a tragic mistake. Every week in Oakland, one brother kills another brother for no good reason and certainly not by mistake. Where is the community outrage?
    The animals in Oakland need very little persuasion to riot, burn and steal, not necessarily in that order.
    Listen to the trash talk on all of the internet clips, the people are animals and are partially responsible for the tension and confusion of the moment.

  3. Danny Ray said on January 10th, 2009 at 12:14pm #

    Ok Robert, The dude was down on hss belly His hands behind his back , so why in the hell was the stupid bastard cop going to tase him? Is this just a mexian going to show a black guy who runs things . If he is so stupid that he don’t know his taser from his duty pistol why in the hell was the cocksucker a cop.

    I will tell you what happened, he pulled his peice to cover the operations and squeezed the trigger too hard, but the main problem that I see was why were they on the pood bastard at all.

  4. Danny Ray said on January 10th, 2009 at 12:15pm #

    He should have lost his job because you can’t be a cop in a cell.

  5. John Hatch said on January 10th, 2009 at 1:32pm #

    The American model of policing, with all the inherent racism of armies, has become increasingly militarized, so that all citizens are potentially dangerous enemies out to hurt the ‘benign’ occupying ‘peacekeepers’.

    There is ever more of a Blackwater attitude to use violence first, then cover up using willing media spin, lies, obstruction, theft of evidence, blame of victim, slander, innuendo, intimidation, tame prosecutors, and investigative foot-dragging, all the while demanding that the population ignore their own eyes and common sense and patiently ‘trust the system.

    And the suckers buy it every time.

    But maybe a tipping point is coming.

  6. C.D. Hall said on January 10th, 2009 at 1:37pm #

    Robert P.,
    “He lost his livelihood”. He made a mistake. Hey, the man killed a defenseless human being. If your argument is that he didn’t mean too, maybe you should represent him at his trial. See how far that gets you. the ol’ OOPS defense. The guy deserves time in prison. Just like a drunk driver who makes a mistake. And by the way, I dont think he lost quite as much as his victims.

  7. Ron Horn said on January 10th, 2009 at 2:19pm #

    I fear that a time will come when we, the people, the dis-owned and disempowered, after they can no longer control us with their lying media, will all become “insurgents”.

  8. Hue Longer said on January 10th, 2009 at 2:53pm #

    Whatever the race of the cop, he is a cop and that is an indoctrinated representative of the racist establishment. It was murder. It was murder when he “stunned” him and it was murder when put hand cuffs on a severely injured man he definitely knew he shot with a firearm.


    You don’t need to say it was tragic in here. This isn’t a place for being PC…just defend your cop over the shooting of another animal

  9. Cortnie said on January 10th, 2009 at 2:56pm #

    I think it is a disgrace that the law enforcement officers get such a rash of shit for doing their job. I respect cops and how they serve my community. Every single one of you that has a negative comment about this officer or any other, I dare you to be a cop and risk your life for someone you don’t know. Just because you saw the video doesn’t mean you know what happened. What happened before the video started and why are they separated from the others – they are suspicious that is why. When you get dumb shits that want trouble the end result might not be good. Now, tasers on duty belts have only been available to officers for less then 5 to 10 years? What the hell do you think they did before they had tasers!!!!!!Shot them. Silly people get your head out of your ass. I would like you to seriously think about if you were in that officer’s position – have you ever seen what a taser looks like that an officer wears. They look and feel very similar to a gun. In a heated and violent situation the officers were taking action on a situation that was getting out of control. The officer that was holding the guy down with his knee – that is called defensive tactics for anyone out there that still has their head up their ass. That is how they are taught in school and training. I am not an officer but I assure you I have all the respect for these men and women that risk their life for getting scum off the street and making our world safe. The big picture is why wasn’t this “poor?” jackass home being a father then instead of making trouble?… Officer’s get paid shit and for you stupid people that think they are wrong for keeping us safe – you must be have been caught doing something stupid in your life and have never gotten over it. I think that may be it.

  10. Hue Longer said on January 10th, 2009 at 3:17pm #

    Wow Cortnie, where to begin?

    How about you please stay at home

  11. Ramsefall said on January 10th, 2009 at 3:49pm #

    Ditto on Hue’s final comment.

    Media spin…that which is truly Amerikan, keep the idiots even more confused and out of touch with reality, i.e. Cortnie and robert P.

    Don’t touch that Faux News dial, they’ll be right back with another plate of hot, steaming bs for you to sop up.

  12. Charlie said on January 10th, 2009 at 4:05pm #

    If it was a genuine mistake why not react with some regret/sense of urgency/surprise and why wait 6 days to say so?

    This is a truly awful act and is the roles were reversed no one would have any qualms about saying the perpetrator should be locked up for a long time or in some states executed.

  13. Ab Baff said on January 10th, 2009 at 4:17pm #

    robertP, you got one thing right. It was a tragic mistake. The video tells us that from his facial expressions and subsequent actions, as well as those of his fellow officer. The rest of gibberish you spout is just that. Mr. Mehserle should have just come out with it straight away – “I fucked up, I didn’t mean to squeeze the trigger, I just meant to provide cover.” It was clear that the situation was under control, why would he be pulling and triggering the tazer? It looks like a tragic mistake to me. And BART and the media are responsible for the riots and subsequent damage – what did they expect to happen when they tried to lie, deny and deceive?

    Cortnie – You’ve got some serious bad karma coming your way . . . and I hope it comes at the hands of the police state, only I don’t want you to die. I want you to live in paralysis so you can ponder your arrogant ignorance and racism. That, and that your just the tool the good ol’ police state needs. Congratulations.

  14. Danny Ray said on January 10th, 2009 at 5:23pm #

    I think cortnie has watched to much COPS.

    Her? His? argument could be made for all killings, I can see it now.

    I love all the IDF F-16 pilots. They are just doing their job. yes they bombed a school but you don’t know what happened as the video started. And you don’t know what its like. It was all a mistake. They did not mean to.

    The poor Gazans started it they always look so guilty.

  15. Josi said on January 10th, 2009 at 5:41pm #

    Even if, and we all know the truth here, but even if this egregious act of violence was a “mistake” this glorified security guard deserves to be fed to the community that he wounded so terribly. Let us take the role of judge, jury, and ultimately, excecutioner in this case, just like he did upon meeting Mr. Grant. You do not accidentally draw a weapon of any kind without intending to use it. Even a taser would have been a horrible transgression against the victims rights. This man, and I use that term loosely here, had no business with a weapon let alone the legal right to use one. Murder is murder, intentional, accidental, or however you name. Unfortunately this is community that has seen so much of it we are hardened and tired. But under that shell is hope and God help the silly fucker that kills an unarmed man in a town that has no more forgiveness for the system and is trying desperately to hold onto the last whisps of community.

    Go down town and support the business that were brutalized in the protest, share what you can, give love, and let’s hold this criminal accountable for what he did to this town. It is now and always has been, PERSONAL.

  16. Hue Longer said on January 10th, 2009 at 5:55pm #

    Charlie said on January 10th, 2009 at 4:05pm #

    “If it was a genuine mistake why not react with some regret/sense of urgency/surprise and why wait 6 days to say so”?

    They did act with urgency…They quickly dragged and handcuffed him so that he could bleed quicker and went about trying to gather cell phones for “evidence”.

  17. John Hatch said on January 10th, 2009 at 6:24pm #

    You may recall the case of Robert Dziekanski, murdered by the RCMP at Vancouver International Airport. There are many similarities to the case at hand.

    After a long flight from Poland, Mr. Dziekanski, who spoke only Polish, was left to wander around a secure part of the airport lost and to miss his waiting mother, who was there from another city to meet him. She was assured he was nowhere in the building. No one offered him a hand, let alone translation services which were available. He was completely ignored for about eleven hours, in spite of appearing dazed and confused on many security cameras.

    Disoriented and frustrated, Mr. Dziekanski began to act out that frustration, but did not threaten anyone.

    When RCMP arrived, he expressed relief. They thought he was speaking Russian. Showing no aggression to the Mounties, they nevertheless Tasered him within a few seconds. They Tasered him five times (then lied about the number). They Tasered him even as he convulsed on the floor. Then a brave Mountie put his knee on neck/chest area, another on his legs, and they handcuffed him. Mr. Dziekanski stopped breathing. Not one of the four officers, all trained in CPR, lifted a finger to help their victim. But they did prevent airport medical first-responders from assisting, and later refused to remove Mr. D’s handcuffs so that firefighters could properly administer CPR. He died.

    Then the usual spin began. RCMP lied about the number of officers present.

    They lied about ‘confiscating’ (stealing) the camera memory stick of a witness who filmed from behind the glass around the secure area where the incident happened.

    They assured an outraged public that they shouldn’t believe their own eyes, but rather the constant mis-statements and outright lies of a Mountie spinner.

    They later sent a contingent of Mounties (and a translator, this time) to Mr. D’s Polish hometown, where local authorities cooperated in helping the Mounties try to dig up any potentially useful dirt on their victim, but were unsuccessful. Relatives and acquaintences there said they felt intimidated and browbeaten by RCMP tactics.

    The Crown took over a year to decide the foregone- that no charges would be laid, but this also served to delay (still ongoing) hearings into the matter, because the RCMP refused to appear while charges might be outstanding. In the meantime a seperate public inquiry found numerous routing breaches of policy guidelines regarding the use of the Taser, and more than just frequent inappropriate use, amounting to torture. The RCMP said they ‘might’ amend their ways. Since then it has been discovered that many of the weapons were set to deliver much higher voltage than the manufacturer claimed.

    None of the YVR officers were reassigned, but one has since been because of a different matter- driving his SUV while allegedly alcohol impaired, then hitting and killing a young motorcyclist. We’ll see how the RCMP and Crown prosecuters help him wriggle out of that, but he allegedly craftily left the scene as the man lay dying, disappearing for long enough that the defense could argue that he wasn’t impaired at the time of the accident, but foolishly had a few drinks afterward, to calm down. It’s been done before. Watch for it.

    Since Mr. Dziekanski’s death (five rapid deployments, some to an unconcious ‘suspect’ far exceed any guidelines I’ve seen, and is unconcionable on the face of it) several more Canadians have been killed by Mounties or other macho and unaccountable Canadian police forces under questionable circumstances.

    Welcome to the 2010 Olympics. Might be even more electrifying than you thought.

    You can see more here:

  18. Mulga Mumblebrain said on January 10th, 2009 at 6:41pm #

    Here, as In Gaza, you see the reality of a world ruled by brutal racists, who regard their victims as sub-human. Western Civilization is inherently murderous, psychopathic and, inevitably, genocidal. Gaza, the Nakbah, the Holocaust of the indigenous over five centuries, slavery, economic terrorism, the Great Indian Famines under English rule,globalised apartheid-all were summed up by Conrad’s Kurtz’s cry, ‘Exterminate all the brutes’.

  19. Marklar said on January 10th, 2009 at 7:23pm #

    The excuse of mistaking his gun for a tazer is ludicrous. Ever felt a gun in your hand? Ever felt a Tazer in your hand? The difference in weight and feel is unmistakable.

    This was a murder plain and simple. Anyone who says it wasn’t is either retarded or an agent of evil.

    Prosecute this psycho to the fullest extent of the law!

  20. MotherJones said on January 10th, 2009 at 10:02pm #

    When cops PURPOSELY Taser/shoot/abuse citizens of ANY race or ethnicity, their names and addresses should be noted. Then they should followed EVERY NIGHT tilL they RESIGN leave town.

    Another approach is to take out an ad in one or more major community
    newspapers and the Web detailing a cop’s action and that – in response -of his ’employer’. Oh yes, the cop’s name & address would be in BOLD TYPE. I absolutely guarantee this an other methods employed in an ongoing coordinated campaign would result in SAFER CITIZENS, FEWER ‘SHOT-IN-THE-BACK’ BLACK MEN and more RESPONSIBLE and APPREHENSIVE COPS.

    As long as citizens believe the garbage that police ‘Protect & Serve’, NO citizens will be SAFE from Taser & Gun-Happy cops. They know it’s PURE BULL they’ve got a CONTRACTUAL RESPONSIBILITY ‘To Protect & Serve’. No MSMA police force have such CRAP in its contract!!

  21. Ron Horn said on January 11th, 2009 at 11:49am #

    Incidents such as this have been happening so often since I can remember–mostly since the Vietnam War (recall the massacre of Kent State students by the National Guard)–and almost never, I can’t recall ever that the authority figures were ever disciplined except in the mildest forms. It seems to me that such incidents really reveal in stark clarity that we live in a class society and the police/military represent the interests of the ruling class. Hence they are above the law, because the law is only used to keep working people in their place. Notice that the only people prosecuted for torture at Abu Graib, and other US hellish places, were low ranking soldiers who followed orders that came down from Rumsfeld and Cheney. Notice that no one as been prosecuted for the recent Wall Street crimes that have put our economy in peril. Incidents such as Grant’s murder dramatically puts the lie to all the myths about this being a democratic society ruled by law that places everyone equal in the eyes of the law.

  22. The Angry Peasant said on January 11th, 2009 at 12:21pm #

    Exactly. This is one more of a long list of blatant examples for the American people to observe the painful truth: WE ARE NOT PROTECTED BY LAW. Quite the opposite. Christ, how much more will we tolerate?

  23. The Angry Peasant said on January 11th, 2009 at 12:26pm #

    And John Hatch, your story is equally infuriating. The powerful protect their enforcers everywhere. Incidentally, those goddamn tasers should be outlawed. A bully’s tool; that’s all they are.

  24. The Angry Peasant said on January 11th, 2009 at 12:40pm #

    Another observation: The media in its stunning hypocrisy sings the praises of the first black president being elected (who as we know shares the media’s corporate-puppet agenda), then a few weeks later does all it can to cover up the brutal murder of a fellow establishment member; a cop for killing an innocent black man. The conspiring of the powerful and the media at its finest.

  25. Medina said on January 11th, 2009 at 9:52pm #

    Lock him up and let the lifers deal with him, he will be torn to shreds in the blink of an eye

  26. Brian Koontz said on January 12th, 2009 at 2:30am #

    It’s too bad the outrage over one man’s death can’t be multiplied by the number of people killed by the ruling elites of the world.

    It’s like if one person is killed the country gets into an uproar, but if a million are killed they look the other way.

    I wonder how the number of people calling for Mehserle’s imprisonment compares with the number calling for Dick Cheney’s imprisonment.

    Tens of thousands of people die easily preventable deaths every day in the world, caused largely by the global ruling elite.

    So sure, send Mehserle to jail. But you’d better not stop there.

  27. Danny Ray said on January 12th, 2009 at 6:14am #

    Brian, There is a lot of truth in what Uncle Joe Stalin said. One death is a tragedy, A million is just a statistic

  28. Ramsefall said on January 12th, 2009 at 8:47am #

    Outrage over the death of Mr. Grant is being voiced here in response to this particular article’s content. What else would you expect according to the topic?

    Take notice that in articles dealing with an outrageous number of deaths caused by the elite — be it as we see in pieces about Israel/Palestine, Iraq, Afghanistan, Congo, etc — the same outrage is expressed.

    I don’t see people looking the other way in response to articles that address those issues as you indicate, Mr. Koontz and Danny Ray.

    Best to you.

  29. Billy Beck said on January 12th, 2009 at 10:31am #

    “I dare you to be a cop and risk your life for someone you don’t know.”

    I *have*, you asshole: one doesn’t have to be a cop in order to do that.

    Fuck the police: all the way and right out loud.

  30. Tree said on January 12th, 2009 at 11:46am #

    “I am not an officer but I assure you I have all the respect for these men and women that risk their life for getting scum off the street and making our world safe.”

    Didn’t pass the psychological test, did you?

  31. Ramsefall said on January 12th, 2009 at 12:43pm #

    Billy Beck,




    You’ve busted my face into laughter from your comment there.

    Thanks and tschuss!

  32. Danny Ray said on January 12th, 2009 at 4:56pm #

    Ramesfall said. “Outrage over the death of Mr. Grant is being voiced here in response to this particular article’s content. What else would you expect according to the topic?”

    Boy, voicing your outrage will sure change things a lot! At least the peopl who took to the streets are real not some armchair lib . you want to change things get off your ass, thats the problem with the left they all want to talk an issue to death.

    You people can talk till you are blue in the face and they will still be shooting people down in the streets.

    The only thing Churchill said wrong was ” Jaw Jaw is Better Than War War.”

  33. Danny Ray said on January 12th, 2009 at 4:58pm #

    you people are like some of your Arab brothers in here you will fight till the last drop of your brothers blood. if they felt so strongly why in the hell don’t they pick up an AK and crush the thieving Jews.

  34. Ramsefall said on January 14th, 2009 at 9:07am #

    Danny Ray,

    my response was related to Brian’s inaccurate accusation, nothing more.

    Keep your eye on the ball, buddy.

  35. Lil'SweetLips said on January 15th, 2009 at 1:28am #

    Mulga Mumblebrain what is your problem? You hear one piece of horrible news- and you jump to calling ALL of us “inherently murderous, psychopathic and, inevitably, genocidal” ?

    The fact is- that we had video tapes of PLANES flying into buildings killing thousands of innocent people of all races- and apparently that is not enough to convince some people of intentional murder… but this cell phone capture immediately proves intent and guilt? Lets weigh it out in court with all the evidence.

    But thank you for allowing all of us idiotic Western civilians to blame everyone related to or within proximity for one persons crime. I will remind my friends that have personally served in the Military, Sheriff’s and other great departments who have sacrificed their own personal gain- for that of others… and its not just if others equals = white, Christian, wealthy, or even American. I mean how many support organizations, charities, volunteers, schools and so forth- have we as a community built for all people- here and abroad?

    If you want the world to change, stop blaming everyone else, stop rioting like lunatics that destroy cities and bomb, threaten or hurt others.

  36. Ben said on January 21st, 2009 at 12:51am #

    It’s funny seeing all these people defending others who do atrocious things as “just doing their job”. That is the same line of reasoning that the Nazis used when they were being tried for war crimes.

  37. Hue Longer said on January 21st, 2009 at 5:04am #

    Not funny “ha ha” but yeah, Ben

    The idea that cops like Sweetlips put forth about them sacrificing is complete delusion. Are they suggesting that they gave up being CEO of a major corp to become unappreciated “heroes”? No one likes to feel like a coward, it’s why so many who join the military convince themselves it was due to sacrifice as opposed to a fear of flipping burgers.

  38. sonia said on April 15th, 2009 at 10:36am #

    1. this is a great article, but it portrays Oscar Grant being peacable during the arrest. that’s not true. what happened was that he and his friends got in a fight on the BART train. okay, that stuff happens, especially on Dec 31, especially in cities like Oakland. and Grant was a kid, basically. then officers responded, which was right, and what they should have done was diffused the situation, escorted the kids off the train and seen that they got home. people get rowdy partying Dec. 31, period.

    2. if you watch the video, you see Grant responding with attitude to the officers. good for him. the way black people are treated as automatic criminals is not right. it’s clear that the police overreacted, and changed a BART train scuffle into a public murder scene.

    3. Johannes Mehserle did not intend to taser Grant. watch the video. neither of the officers reacts with surprise when the gun goes off. you’d have a reaction to accidentally killing someone you meant to taser. but, nothing. he does, briefly, look around at the cameras aimed at him, as if mentally recording who saw him do it.

  39. sonia said on April 15th, 2009 at 10:39am #

    and sorry-

    “Western Civilization is inherently murderous, psychopathic and, inevitably, genocidal”

    that’s just true.