Nucleic Acid Invaders from Food Confirmed

Editor’s note: Oh, the pharm-ag industry. It is a complete nightmare out there, as all of humanity is one giant petri dish and mice lab. Environmental  factors, aromatic particles, nanoparticles, endless combusted materials, plastics, ugly chains of percolated fats, GMOs, pesticides, metals, resins, hydrocarbons, the entire mess that is American-European capitalism through chemistry.

Soy-soy-soy — the allergies are coming on like a Spanish flu, and America, and the transnational pigs of finance and offshoring felonies are ramping up the hyphenated compounds put into the food of Johnny and Juanita.

These people, like GM executives, like the lot of lawyers, they are worthy less than the five pounds of cremains they might produce on a good day. Every single minute, they are mad men/mad women. They conjure up schemes to emulsify our species, all species. Anything to extract that pound of gold. Entire Amazons poisoned, children tumor-laced, people burned by despots so the Apple product gets its strategic metals. These are who we put high on pedestals.

What’s Up, Doc?

General Mills has rolled out a new product called Cheerios Protein. Most of the protein, of course, comes from soy. GMO soy. But that’s not all, folks. Making those Os and clusters “taste good”, is twice as much of another deadly ingredient. Find out what it is in my latest blog right here.

So no matter how hard people try to stay away from a life of cancer, immune issues, allergies, mental disabilities, advanced aging, aches, paind, obesity, thyroid surgeries, and on and on, the masters of the universe, and their white Christo-Zionist marketers, technologists, scientists, lawyers, they will do anything for a buck. Poison the water system to send Selena to Harvard.

Green is the New Red: Environmentalists Are Being Murdered More Often Than Ever Before — How Can We Stop It?

More environmentalists are being murdered, globally, than ever before. Will Potter speaks with KALW San Francisco about the trend.

Australia’s #AgGag Laws Backed To Hide Animal Cruelty

“By eliminating that release to the media, it prevents the public and consumers from knowing what’s happening, which is the point of these ‘ag-gag’ laws,” Potter explained.

Is this how we fight fire? With Fire? With drones? I have a few friends in high tech land working on programs and “death rays” that are intended to render all robotics and hard drives useless, burned, incenerated, broken, kaput. That seems like a project for our salvation, our history. Drones on the Farm, to expose animal sickness, pollution, HELL:

Photographer Mishka Henner documented factory farm pollution—like this waste lagoon at a Texas feedlot—by satellite. What else could drone photography uncover?

[Photographer Mishka Henner documented factory farm pollution—like this waste lagoon at a Texas feedlot—by satellite. What else could drone photography uncover?]

So, while I am super-man, in the realm of physical extremes, my gut, drinking, power racing at 57, still playing football with a herniated disk, still able to burn both ends of the candle, the world is not my oyster. I teach college and K12, and the files I get when substituting are getting fatter and fatter with warnings of students with ALLERGIES, and of the various learning disabilities and behavioral challenges. No, it’s not in their minds, and no this is not about bad upbringngs or the entitled generation or the distracted generation, or whatever shit the psuedo experts want to pin on us, on them, via the CNBC and NPR and PBS bull-crap.

More and more hormone distrupters, more and more thyroids being aided by synthetic hormones, more and more kidney stones, urinary tract infections, sneezing, puking, and hot flashes. This is the result of the industrialists, the marketers, these egg heads in east coast and west coast schools who never saw a lab rat they didn’t want to puree for the fun of it. They have the same minds as economists, who also fancy themselves as the great experimenters, the arbiters of capitalism, consumerism, our futures.

Read — Living wth a Soy Allergy. Check out the depth of the problem. People rushed to the ER. EpiPens. Really, Uncle Sam.

If you are allergic to soy, you have probably discovered the hard way that foods containing thiamine mononitrate can cause some pretty severe allergic reactions. To someone who becomes frighteningly ill each time one of these foods is ingested, it’s frustrating that much of the allergy information out there is insisting that thiamine mononitrate is now synthetically produced and that soy exposure from thiamine mononitrate is no longer an issue.

For several months recently the soy allergic people in our family suffered some very unsettling reactions even though we only eat foods that are supposedly completely soy free. Obviously we were eating something on a regular basis that was causing these reactions. I could think of only two possibilities… the flour I was baking with or the whole grain brown rice.

These little Frankensteins with Goldman Sachs and the IMF and all those big food outfits behind them, you think citizens who are called “consumers” would be fighting for their lives. To repeat:  the lies and sickness of the nanoparticle purveyors is boundless, and you will not see many NPR or ABC or NYT articles on the dangers of these.

The current research demonstrates how difficult it is to map out the health effects of nanoparticles. Since the number of possible combinations of nanoparticles and various biomolecules is immense, it is practically impossible to research them systematically. Even if a certain nanoparticle does not appear toxic, the interaction between this nanoparticle and other compounds in the human body may cause serious problems to cell functions. Further, combining nanoparticles with toxic substances poses even more serious questions. Be wary of products which tout the use of nanoparticles. This is yet another reason why consumers need to demand natural, organically grown ingredients in products.

(NaturalNews) Researchers in Finland and the US studied how certain nanoparticles interact with cells. Results indicated that nanoparticles may alter cell structure, causing the cells to die. Currently, nanoparticles are widely used in cosmetics, electronics, optical devices, medicine, and in food packaging materials. Nanoparticles may well be the asbestos of the twenty first century: a considerable threat to people`s health.

Nanotubes were discovered accidentally in 2000 at Heidelberg University, in Germany. By nature they seem to be a means of cell to cell communication. They exist for very short periods of time, then vanish as the cells no longer need them.

Nanoparticles (also known as nanopowders, nanoclusters, nanotubes, or nanocrystals) are microscopic. They measure less than 100 nanometers in at least one dimension. A nanometer equals one billionth of a meter – one millionth of a millimeter.

Although we are used to substances having particular properties, those properties often change as the particle size approaches the nano level. Theories suggest that the change in properties is related to the percentage of atoms at the surface of the substance. These different properties are fascinating to scientists.

Learn more:

I emphasized that last three words above. FASCINATING to scientists. Now, that is the issue, throwing precautionary principle out the bank window, throwing unintended consequences into the wind, and working for the purveyors of Capital in their rush for intended consequences. We all are collateral damage, the vehicles for their machinations, their FASCINATIONS.

I have fascinations, too — tax-tax the rich, forced sterilization of the .01 percent, gulags for bankers, voluntary extinction for CEOs of companes like GM or Dow or Union Carbide, you name it, for the the maiming and deaths of people. Fascinated by the prospect of unversal health care, the 32 hour work week, community directed organzing, anarcho-syndicalism, sustainablity with the big E environment and the other one, E for Equity overtaking anything the third “e,” Economy might bring to bear.

Fascinations, hmm. Nanotechnology, broken cell linings, all sorts of synergistic problems, created by products that never ever were intended to solve problems or avail broken anything. So, here we have the DNA and GMO debate, by our friend Mae-Wan Ho.

PKH

Nucleic Acid Invaders from Food Confirmed

by Mae-Wan Ho

New research confirms that DNA fragments derived from meals, large enough to  carry complete genes, can escape degradation and enter the human circulatory  system, and so can RNA, raising serious concerns over new nucleic acids  introduced into the human food chain via genetically modified organisms  — Dr Mae-Wan Ho

Food RNA gets into blood and so does DNA

We have alerted readers to research showing how tiny RNA molecules in food eaten can circulate in the bloodstream and turn genes off in the body, raising concerns over the safety of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which introduce many novel and synthetic nucleic acids into the human food chain (“How Food Affects Genes,” SiS 53). New research shows that pieces of DNA large
enough to code for complete genes can also escape degradation in the gut and enter the human circulatory system, and the presence of circulating RNA from food is much more extensive and widespread.

DNA known to resist digestion and may form part of circulating cell free DNA

A study led by Sándor Spisák who holds a joint appointment at Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Budapest and Harvard Medical School Boston, Massachusetts in the USA analysed over 1 000 human adult samples from four independent studies, and  found DNA fragments derived from food in all plasma samples, some large enough to code for complete genes.

Previous animal feeding studies have demonstrated that a minor proportion of fragmented dietary DNA may resist digestion, but the degradation of long chains of DNA and the possible uptake and transport into the bloodstream are not at all understood. Circulating cell free DNA (cfDNA) in the human bloodstream, first described in 1948, are mostly double-stranded molecules with a wide range of fragment sizes from 180 – 21 k bp.

Most people think cfDNA are from apoptotic cells (resulting from programmed cell-death), and in different diseases such as inflammation, autoimmune, trauma and cancer, necrotic cells (from non-programmed cell death) may increase the amount. In fact, both DNA and RNA are found circulating in the bloodstream, and there is good evidence that they are actively secreted from living cells as a nucleic acid intercommunication system (see  “Intercommunication via Circulating Nucleic Acids,” SiS 42).

Apart from the individual’s own cells, DNA of the foetus can be detected in maternal plasma. Viral DNA, bacterial DNA may also be found in various disease states. DNA from consumed food is not usually considered, although there are animal studies suggesting that small fragments of nucleic acids may pass into the bloodstream and even into various tissues. For example, foreign DNA fragments were  detected by PCR in the digestive tract and leukocytes of rainbow trout fed GM soybean, and other similar findings were reported in goats , pigs, and mice.

These recent discoveries were possible thanks to huge advances in nucleic acid sequencing technology, in particular, next generation deep sequencing (NGS) (see Box).

Next generation deep sequencing

Next generation sequencing (NGS) extends sequencing across millions of reactions taking place in parallel rather than being limited to a single or a few DNA fragments. This enables rapid sequencing of large stretches of DNA base pairs spanning entire genomes, with instruments capable of producing hundreds of gigabase (Gb) data in a single sequencing run. To sequence a single genome,the
genome is first fragmented into a library of small segments that can be uniformly and accurately sequenced in millions of parallel reactions. The newly identified strings of bases, called reads (of a defined length) are then reassembled using a known reference genome as a scaffold (resequencing), or in the absence of a reference genome (de novo sequencing), assembled by overlaps. The full set of aligned reads reveals the entire sequence of each chromosome in the genome.

NGS data output has been rising steeply since its invention in 2007, when a single sequencing run could produce a maximum of about one Gb data. By 2011, the rate has reached nearly a terabase (Tb, 1012b), a thousand fold increase. By 2012, researchers can sequence more than 5 human genomes in a single run, producing data in roughly one week at a cost of less than $5 000 per genome. The $1000 genome is now within our grasp.

NGS high throughput capacity has enabled ‘deep sequencing’ of genomes and transcriptomes to look for rare DNA variants or rare species of RNA transcripts. Deep sequencing means that the total number of reads is many times larger than the length of the sequence under study. ‘Depth’ (coverage) is the average number of times a nucleotide is read.

Surveys of existing next generation sequencing database

Spisák’s team did a first survey on samples from 200 human individuals pooled into four groups based on colonoscopy diagnosis as having inflammatory bowel disease, adenoma, colorectal cancer or negative [3]. NGS gave 50 nt long reads, and a total of 86.6 G bases. On average 71 % of reads could be mapped to the human reference genome. The goal of the original study was to find human genetic differences between the four groups according to the stage of their disease, but there were relatively large amounts of unmapped reads, and the researchers wanted to find out where that DNA could have originated.

Before searching for foreign (non-human) genomes, the reads that matched the reference human genome were discarded. The remaining sequences were then aligned to foreign genomes using stringent sequence matching criteria. Chloroplast DNA sequences from tomatoes were identified, with hints of other food species, such as chicken, but larger samples would be needed to get convincing results for meat (because meat DNA is more similar to human DNA).

The number of aligning short reads shows large differences between samples. Most of the matches are for the longest intact DNA segments. This is surprising, in view of the current assumption that during digestion and absorption DNA is degraded down to nucleotide level. Instead, the results showed that not just some of the DNA can avoid complete degradation but fragments large enough to carry complete genes can pass from the digestive tract into the bloodstream.

To investigate further, they searched the publicly available NGS archives for circulating cell free DNA sequence data, as NGS technology is evolving so fast and sequences are produced at such a great rate that detailed understanding of the information cannot keep pace with the accumulation of data. The team found 909 samples from 907 individuals in three studies. The analysis of these independent data confirms their hypothesis that foreign DNA in human plasma is not unusual, though there is large variation from subject to subject. There was no trace of plant DNA in cord blood samples, which act as a good negative control, while more than 1 000 reads were detected in the maternal plasma. An independent sample from a subject with inflammation showed high plant DNA concentration, higher than human DNA.

There were alignments to dozens of plant species differing between individuals. The first three species, beans, are members of the Fabaceae family, the next eight species belong to the Brassicaceae family. There are four members from the Solanaceae famlly (potato, tobacco) and one from the Convolvulaceae (Ipomoea, Cuscuta) family, members of the Solanales order. The remaining eight species are from the Poaceae family of the Monocots clade. All 24 plants are often consumed by humans or are close relatives of frequently eaten species while many non-edible plants do not show up on the list. Inedible species can show up because they are genetically related to other species, and not all the frequently eaten plant species are part of the chloroplast genome collection. The only outlier, the non-edible Ipomoea purpurea (morning glory) shows up because it is similar to the genome of Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato) or Ipomoea aquatica (kangkong) a common vegetable eaten in Southeast Asia. Individuals can be grouped according to those with high Poaceae (grains), high Fabaceae and “high everything else except Poaceae”.

In general the DNA present in plasma reflected the diet of the individuals concerned, leaving little doubt that DNA from food ingested can resist digestion in the gut and pass into the circulatory system, potentially to be taken up by cells within the body with unknown effects.

Bacterial, fungi and food RNA in human plasma

In another study, researchers in Seattle Washington in the United States led by Kai Wang and David Galas at the Institute for Systems Biology and Paul Wiles at University of Luxembourg carried out a survey of human plasma for miRNA using NGS. They found a significant fraction originating from exogenous species, including bacteria and fungi as well as food species. Some of the RNAs are detected in intracellular complexes and may be able to influence cellular activities.

Initially, NGS was done on 9 plasma samples, 3 from healthy individuals, 3 from patients with colorectal cancer prior to any treatment and 3 from individuals suffering from ulcerative colitis. On first examination, the team noticed that less than 1.5 % of the processed reads (proportional to frequency) actually mapped to human miRNAs. About 11 % of the remaining reads mapped to human transcripts and human genome sequence when no sequence mismatch was allowed. With a higher tolerance of sequence mismatches (2 mismatches), the fraction of reads that could be mapped to known human transcripts rose to about 42 % and 15 % to other human genome sequences. This still left over 40 % of reads with an unknown origin. After carefully eliminating the human sequences, a significant number of the unmapped reads aligned with various bacterial and fungal sequences.

The reads (~7 %) covered all major bacteria phyla and two archaea phyla, Euryarchaeola and Crenarchaeota. The bacterial phylum Firmicules, typically the most abundant bacteria phylum in the human gut is the 3rd most abundant sequence populations in human plasma. The bacterium that accounts for the highest number of reads is an uncultured bacterium, followed by Pseudomonas fluorescens, an important beneficial bacterium in agriculture, followed by bacteria from the genus Ralstonia pp, then Achromobacter pechaudii, identified in some clinical blood samples.

Fungi represent the largest source of exogenous RNA, about 14 %, covering all major fungal phyla, Ascomycota the most abundant. Metarhizium anisopliae, a common fungus in soil had the most mapped reads and Thielavia terrestris, a thermophilic fungus is the next most abundant. A significant number of reads mapped to yeast Saccharomyces cerevisae commonly used in baking and brewing.

After carefully examining sequences mapped to species other than bacteria and fungi, they found a significant number of reads (~ 2-3 %) that mapped to common food species. The most abundant food RNA sequences are corn (Zea mays) followed by rice (Oryza sativa Japonica group), with corn reads 66 times higher on average than rice. The data from a Chinese individual gave sequence abundance between corn and rice reversed: rice was 55-fold the number from corn. Apart from common cereal grains, RNA from other food items included soybeans, tomato, and grape.

Like endogenous miRNA, the levels of specific exogenous miRNA and rRNA were reduced significantly after Triton X-100, protease, RNAse and protease followed by RNAse treatments, suggesting that some of the exogenous RNA molecules like the endogenous miRNAs are associated with protein and/or lipid complexes in circulation.

Some of the micro-RNA-like molecules from observed exogenous miRNA sequences and some highly abundant exogenous sequences (bacterial rRNAs) were synthesized and transfected into a mouse fibroblast cell line. The expression profiles of a number of genes in the cells were affected by some of the exogenous RNA sequences.

MiRNA in milk

Finally, researchers at Moringa Milk Industry, Zama Kanagawa, Japan, using more conventional microarray and quantitative PCR analyses identified 102 miRNA in bovine milk, 100 in colostrum and 53 in mature milk, and 51 were common to both. Among them, several immune- and development-related miRNAs including miR-15b, miR-27b, miR-34a, miR-106b, 130a, 155 and 223 were more highly expressed in colostrum than in mature milk. Some messenger(m)RNA was also found in bovine milk. While synthetic miRNA spiked in the raw milk whey were degraded, naturally existing miRNA and mRNA in raw milk were resistant to acidic conditions and RNase treatment; unexpectedly, miRNA and mRNA were also found in infant formulas purchased from Japanese market.

To conclude

Nucleic acids (both DNA and RNA) from food can resist digestion in the human gut and enter the circulatory system, with the potential of being taken up by cells to influence gene expression and/or become incorporated into the cell’s genome. This underscores the hazards of GM and other unknown nucleic acids introduced into the human food chain by GMOs.

Mae Wan Ho is a geneticist with a PhD in Biochemistry and over 200 publications, including ten books. Read other articles by Mae-Wan, or visit Mae-Wan's website.