The Pentagon’s Toxic Legacy

The nation’s biggest polluter isn’t a corporation. It’s the Pentagon. Every year the Department of Defense churns out more than 750,000 tons of hazardous waste — more than the top three chemical companies combined.

Yet the military remains largely exempt from compliance with most federal and state environmental laws, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Pentagon’s partner in crime, is working hard to keep it that way. For the past five decades the federal government, defense contractors and the chemical industry have joined forces to block public health protections against perchlorate, a component of rocket fuel that has been shown to effect children’s growth and mental progress by disrupting the function of the thyroid gland which regulates brain development.

Perchlorate, which are salts derived from perchloric acid, has been leaking from literally hundreds of defense plants and military installations across the country. The EPA has reported that perchlorate is present in drinking and groundwater supplies in 35 states. Center for Disease Control and independent studies have also overwhelmingly shown that perchlorate is existent in our food supplies, cow’s milk, and human breast milk. As a result virtually every American has some level of perchlorate in their body.

Currently only two states, California and Massachusetts, have set a maximum allowable contaminant level for perchlorate in drinking water. But the EPA won’t follow these states’ lead. In the Colorado River, which provides water for over 20 million people, perchlorate levels are high. The chemical is most prevalent in the Southwest and California as a result of the large number of military operations and defense contractors in the region.

In 2001 the EPA estimated that the total liability for the cleanup of toxic military sites would exceed $350 billion, or five times the Superfund Act liability of private industry. But the federal government has been complacent and allowed perchlorate to run rampant throughout our water supplies. This negligence and lack of regulatory oversight has left the Pentagon, NASA and defense contractors free to set their own levels, trimming the high, but necessary costs of restoring groundwater along the way.

While the situation has become dire in recent years, it was the Clinton administration that didn’t do nearly enough to begin cleaning up these sites and certainly did not keep a close eye on how the Pentagon spent the money it received. During the 1990s the Defense Department spent only $3.5 billion a year cleaning up toxic military sites — much of that on studies, not actual work. In 1998, the Defense Science Review Board, a federal advisory committee set up to provide independent advice to the secretary of defense, looked at the problem and concluded that the Pentagon had no clear environmental cleanup policy, goals or program, which led lawyer Jonathan Turley, who holds the Shapiro Chair for Public Interest Law at George Washington University, to call the Pentagon the nation’s “premier environmental villain.”

“If they can spend $1 million on a cruise missile, it seems kind of ridiculous they won’t spend $200,000 to see if our food is contaminated with rocket fuel,” says Renee Sharp, a scientist with Environmental Working Group. But if the Clinton program was chintzy, the Bush plan has been downright penurious.

While Bush has boosted overall Pentagon spending by billions, the administration has simultaneously slashed its environmental remediation program. Moreover, the Bush defense plan has called for “new rounds of base closures” to “shape the military more efficiently.” Efficiency is usually a code word for sidestepping environmental rules.

These military sites, which total more than 50 million acres, are among the most insidious and dangerous legacies left by the Pentagon. They are strewn with toxic bomb fragments, unexploded munitions, buried hazardous waste, fuel dumps, open pits filled with debris, burn piles and yes, rocket fuel. An internal EPA memo from 1998 warned of the looming problem: “As measured by acres, and probably as measured by number of sites, ranges and buried munitions represent the largest cleanup program in the United States.”

When a site gets too polluted, the Pentagon has chosen simply to close it down and turn it over to another federal agency. Over the past three decades, the Pentagon has transferred more than 16 million acres, often with little or no remediation. The former bombing areas have been turned into wildlife refuges, city and state parks, golf courses, landfills, airports and shopping malls.

Serious contamination of streams, soil and groundwater is a problem at nearly every military training ground. The sites are often saturated with heavy metals and other pollutants as well as unexploded weapons. The Government Accountability Office’s list of the kinds of unexploded munitions left behind on many training sites reads like a catalogue for a Middle East arms bonanza: “hand grenades, rockets, guided missiles, projectiles, mortars, rifle grenades, and bombs.”

But the government has gone to great extents to cover up its deadly legacy. In 2002 the Pentagon, defense contractors and perchlorate makers persuaded the editors of a prestigious journal to rewrite an article on the chemical’s health effects without the lead author’s knowledge or consent. Then in 2005 the White House loaded a National Academy of Science panel, which was set up to assess the health risks of perchlorate, with paid consultants of the rocket fuel industry, which, not surprisingly, recommended that exposure levels be set many times higher than the lower doses recommended by numerous independent research studies.

“Perchlorate provides a textbook example of a corrupted health protection system, where polluters, the Pentagon, the White House and the EPA have conspired to block health protections in order to pad budgets, curry political favor, and protect corporate profits,” Richard Wiles, Executive Director of the Environmental Working Group, told the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee on May 7 during a hearing held by committee Chair Barbara Boxer (D-CA) who would like to see national safety standards for perchlorate in drinking water.

“All the pieces needed to support strong health protections are in place,” said Wiles. “This is a nightmare of epic proportions for the Department of Defense and its contractors, and rather than address it head-on, they have spent 50 years and millions of dollars trying to avoid it.”

Jeffrey St. Clair is the author of Been Brown So Long It Looked Like Green to Me: The Politics of Nature and co-edits Joshua Frank is the co-editor of Dissident Voice and the author of Left Out! How Liberals Helped Reelect George W. Bush. Together they are the editors of Red State Rebels: Tales of Grassroots Resistance in the Heartland, published by AK Press. Read other articles by Jeffrey St. Clair and Joshua Frank.

8 comments on this article so far ...

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  1. evie said on May 13th, 2008 at 10:31am #

    I know the Pentagon is criminal. I know government bureaucracies are criminal.

    But all that comes to mind upon reading this is – I want to thank Ralphie Nader, who takes credit and/or responsibility, for creating the EPA 37 years ago.

    Thank you Ralph for another multi-billion dollar sucking, specialized policy making corrupt bureaucracy. And 17,000 EPA inept employees and non-elected officials living high on the government hog with benefits thank you.

    Was someone saying something about a toxic legacy?

  2. Erroll said on May 13th, 2008 at 3:12pm #

    Talk about desperation in trying to find a convenient whipping boy to blame. When in doubt, attack Ralph Nader. Pay no attention to the fact that it was the Reagan administration that allowed the corporations to pollute the environment in the 1980s or that the corporations and the lack of regulations for cracking down today may have something to do with the foul air today. Of course not, it must be that favorite scapegoat of liberals, Ralph Nader.

    Does Ms. Evie point out that Nader has made crackdown on corporate crime and corporate welfare and an end to corporate personhood and that Nader wishes to adopt a carbon pollution tax as part of his platform while Obama and Clinton and McCain have not said one word on this issue? No, because that would mean that she could not focus all of the world’s ills upon Nader. Another less than reasoned argument by Ms. Evie.

  3. Don Hawkins said on May 13th, 2008 at 3:41pm #

    Of course, as perhaps befits the oldest-ever serious contender for the presidency, McCain has embraced an outdated dichotomy: the suggestion that the climate-change choice is between “One extreme (that) thinks high taxes and crippling regulation is the solution” and “Another (that) denies the problem even exists.”
    In fact, there are smart green solutions that are good for responsible businesses, consumers and taxpayers. McCain could learn about them by studying what European conservatives and even a few American Republicans, like California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, have been saying – and doing – for years.

    But, as McCain’s ad establishes, he’s not really serious about climate change. What he’s serious about is neutralizing the environment as an issue in a presidential campaign season that will see millions of American voters – including a great many wavering Republicans – treat climate-change as an exceptionally serious election issue. By John Nichols The Nation

    Do you read DV Obama?

  4. evie said on May 13th, 2008 at 5:14pm #

    Carbon pollution tax eh?

    Energy intensive industries – bye bye, China/India here comes more jobs. Hello carbon levy fees on imports from non-carbon taxing nations.

    Hello to carbon “rebate” checks to qualified residents. And of course, whatever newly created bureaucracy necessary which will handle the revenue and divide those rebate checks equitably between the wealthy and the rest of us, promise.

    What a scam.

    Arnie’s team of experts led by the Secretary of the CalEPA, calls for target reductions to year 2000 greenhouse gas emission levels by 2010, year 1990 emission levels by 2020 and emissions to 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050.

    So …. in 42 years California air may be as clean and fresh, or hopefully a little better if targets are met, as it was in 1990!

    Bend over folks.

  5. Hue Longer said on May 14th, 2008 at 3:52am #

    I love Evie,

    I love her want and ability to find the snake under any rock and even more love her thick skin to keep coming back. It’s easy having one’s positions being attacked by familiar angles that do nothing but give comfort, but Evie delivers!

    I’ve disagreed and challenged her so she knows I’m not patronizing…I think it’s far more productive debating her than arguing with Jaime

  6. Hue Longer said on May 14th, 2008 at 3:56am #

    sorry, Evie

    I don’t know what you think I think I know…I just imagine is all

  7. evie said on May 14th, 2008 at 4:17am #

    Heehee. If there’s a $ sign on the rock you can bet there are snakes under it. It’s the Amerikun way, and that’s an incovenient truth.

  8. hp said on May 14th, 2008 at 9:37am #

    The truth sucks.