Haitian Prisoner of Conscience Returns

Beloved "Mon Pere" Jean-Juste Comes Home

Pere Gerard Jean-Juste, an outspoken Haitian voice for human rights, economic justice and democracy, returned to Haiti last weekend for the first time since being hustled out of a prison cell by heavily armed guards and put on a waiting plane to Miami in January of 2006. Pere Jean-Juste, a Catholic priest, had spent nearly six months in a series of Haitian prisons for refusing to stop his public criticisms of human rights abuses by the coup government which overthrew elected President Jean Bertrand Aristide. Once in Miami, Father Jean-Juste was immediately hospitalized for treatment of leukemia by Dr. Paul Farmer, a long-time friend, who had secretly performed a biopsy on Jean-Juste in his prison cell.

Now, a year and a half later, Pere Jean-Juste was coming home, not knowing how he would be received. As the plane landed in Port au Prince, Father Jean-Juste quietly blessed himself as he saw his home parish, St. Claire, from the window.

As he walked towards the entrance to the Toussaint L’Ouverture airport, dozens of people waved and clapped from the balconies overlooking the landing space. Inside, airport officials, police officers, media and church members crushed in on him. Patting his back, shaking his hands, giving him hugs, the crowds pressed in and called out “Mon Pere!”

A new Haiti greeted him. The unelected coup government had finally left the country. The people elected President Rene Preval. Democracy had returned.

Inside, TV cameras, microphones, and tape recorders were thrust in his face. Many wanted to know if he was going to be a candidate for Presidency of Haiti in the next election. Father Jean-Juste laughed and said, “The only election in the Catholic Church is for Pope – and since the Pope is in good health, I do not see an election anytime soon.”

Father spoke of the disappearance of the human rights activist Lovinsky Pierre-Antoine, called for the return of President Aristide, and urged people interested in human rights in Haiti to keep the pressure on – nonviolently. He was returning to Haiti on a pilgrimage. Was he afraid of death he was asked? “I am a Christian,” he replied. “I know where I am going. If I die, I know the struggle will continue. The struggle must continue for human rights and democratic principles.”

As he tried to leave the airport, a mob of hundreds of celebrating people surrounded him, cheering and chanting his name, trying to touch him. Dozens of UN blue helmeted troops with plastic riot shields pushed the huge crowds back to allow his car to exit as the crowd ran alongside.

A makeshift wooden platform was set up at a nearby park to allow Father Jean-Juste to speak to the crowd which had grown to well over a thousand people. On the front of the platform was a big handmade sign – FIDEL KATOLIK YO DI’W BON RETOU PE JANJIS – celebrating his return. The blazing mid-day sun did not stop the celebration. Ra-ra bands made up of drums and horns of all types wandered through the crowd as Father Jean-Juste spoke. When it was time to leave for his church, the crowds surged in again and it took many helpers to clear a path for his car to leave.

People of all ages lined the highway along the way to the church, waving and cheering. Black and white photocopied pictures of Pere Jean-Juste were plastered to cement walls next to full color pictures of the Haitian flag.

For the first time in over two years, Pere Jean-Juste was going home to St. Claire’s Church in Port au Prince.

The last time he was in his home church was July 21, 2005. That day Fr. Jean-Juste went to the funeral of slain journalist Jacques Roche at St. Pierre’s church. During the funeral services in the church, Fr. Jean-Juste was attacked by a mob, chased through the church building, spit on, beaten, and nearly killed. The unelected Haitian authorities arrested Father Jean-Juste for the second time in less than a year and kept him in a succession of prisons in an attempt to silence him. Amnesty International designated him a Prisoner of Conscience and a world-wide campaign was launched to protect his life in prison and to help win his release. When he was released for medical treatment in Miami the authorities would not allow him to visit his church on the way out.

Hundreds waited at the church for the return of their long-time pastor. When he finally arrived, people sang and cheered. Soaking wet, Father Jean-Juste tried to greet as many people as possible and thank them for their support and good works while he was away. After greeting as many as he could, he went up to his small room in the upper part of the church. There, he fell to his knees and prayed silently for several minutes.

The celebratory mood was hushed by the arrival of several trucks of armed police. Ten men in the uniform of the Haitian National Police marched up the stairs to see Pere Jean-Juste. To the joy of all, each of the police officers went up to Father, shook his hand, and promised to protect him while in Haiti. A 2005 visit by police to the church resulted in Father’s arrest and another six months in prison. This was quite a change. Democracy worked a wonderful change in the police.

Human rights lawyer Mario Joseph told Father Jean-Juste that the prosecutors had dropped all the bogus criminal charges levied against him to keep him in jail and silent during the coup government. But some judges insisted that he return to Haiti for a court hearing on November 5, 2007 to have all the charges formally dropped.

All evening, people came to the upper room of the church to greet and pray with Pere Jean-Juste. At one point nine women holding hands were circling Father in prayer. Other times there were cameras and tape recorders. Outside the church, women walked up the dusty paths with plastic buckets of water on their heads. The air was smoky and darkness settled in quickly.
At 9:30, Father Jean-Juste unlocked the door to his bedroom. For the first time in twenty-five months, he was home.

The next day started sunny and hot. There were reports that Hurricane Dean was in the vicinity of Haiti but there was no evidence of it yet. As Father Jean-Juste arrived at early morning mass, the gathered women burst into song thanking God for his return.

Another priest who is a good friend said the Mass while Father Jean-Juste prayed along from the choir seats. Invited to concelebrate the mass, Fr. Jean-Juste declined, and the priest praised him for his dedication to the church and to the people. At the priest’s invitation, Father Jean-Juste distributed communion.

Around noon, Father arrived at the Aristide Foundation building to speak to hundreds of hot but cheering supporters. The crowd was full of energy. They passionately sang the Haitian national anthem, prayed and danced and clapped to a series of songs, had a long moment of silence for the thousands who lost their lives opposing the coup of 2004. One person in the front row held up a double frame of pictures – one of former President Aristide and another of Father Jean-Juste. Dozens wore red, white and blue t-shirts saying “Welcome back Father Jean-Juste.”

Pere Jean-Juste, dressed all in black, spoke to the crowd for nearly an hour. They cheered, laughed, fell somber and then became excited as he told of his experiences and the challenges facing all in Haiti. As he finished and left people surged in again.

Back at the church, group after group came to visit. Beautiful music soared above the conversations as the choirs practiced in the church below. People from Cite Soleil and other parts of Port au Prince and Haiti came and asked Father Jean-Juste to come visit their neighbors. TV crews, youth groups, church members, politicians, other priests, and the members of the choir all came. As darkness fell, Father led those still at the church in a spirited forty minute rosary.

During the night, the winds of Hurricane Dean arrived with force. Trees were bobbing and weaving – rain was coming into the church rooms sideways.

Despite the high winds and rain, 6:00 am mass was a full house of people cheering and signing in thanksgiving for Father’s return. After mass, visiting resumed and the hurricane did not slow down the flow of visitors either.

Pere Jean-Juste greeted every one, child or grandmother, politician or journalist, with a smile. He was confident and comfortable. After two six month jail terms and enduring over a year of cancer treatment, he was clearly enjoying every second of his return and every person he could meet.

As darkness fell on his last night in Haiti, Pere Jean-Juste attended the closing celebration of the church’s summer camp. During the year, hundreds of children are fed daily by the church members with funding from the US-based What If Foundation. In the summer camp, the number of children and meals swells to over a thousand a day. Fifty community members serve as counselors and the children learn painting, sewing, crocheting, and other arts and crafts.

Yellow paper streamers hung under the tin roof that sheltered the kids and counselors and family from the rain during the end of the summer camp celebration. Children cheered as “Mon Pere” arrived and sang him spirited songs. The children performed skits and counselors, by candlelight, showed Father their arts and craft creations. Particularly gratifying was the installation, while Father was away, of several outdoor toilets for the community including one with full underground plumbing.

Throughout his last night, people continuously knocked on the door of the church to come and see him. A robust midnight rosary was sung by the community. Father said he got three hours of sleep but that seemed doubtful.

In the early morning, the first plane since Hurricane Dean’s winds slowed down, arrived in Port au Prince. While waiting for the plane and while on the plane, people continued to come up to Father to greet him and touch him and welcome him. As the plane took off and his country receded from view, Pere Jean-Juste closed his eyes and prayed for Haiti.

Bill Quigley is a professor of law at Loyola University New Orleans and Associate Legal Director at the Center for Constitutional Rights. He can be reached at: quigley77@gmail.com. Read other articles by Bill.

5 comments on this article so far ...

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  1. catherine said on August 24th, 2007 at 5:19pm #

    I don’t understand. He didn’t stay there, or plan to stay there. Or was there some threat that made him leave after only a couple of days.

    Sorry, I guess I must have missed something.

  2. Nancy Bennett said on August 24th, 2007 at 8:14pm #

    Bill, Thank you for this “being there” experience — an experience of a beautiful man’s homecoming to his country, church, and friends. It is a story which inspires hope and has a lot to teach us of love and courage.

  3. Capois Thomas said on August 25th, 2007 at 11:39pm #

    What you have missed Cathine is this- a murderer will always remaind a muderer. Gerard Jean-Juste is a criminel and he will always on the run. Nancy Bennett said “It is a story which isnpires hope and has a lot to teach us of love and courage.” A murderer does not give hope nor love-
    on the nameof love , Gerard Jean-Juste should go to Jack Roche family and ask them for forgiveness and show some remorse. On the name of courage, Gerard J-J should go back to jail and continue his jail time for the murder of Jack Roche and many others. As most people know G. J.J
    is a vicious prof. assassin operrates under the umbrella of christianity.

  4. Mike Corbeil said on August 27th, 2007 at 2:42pm #

    Capois Thomas, and I definitely don’t need to have read the article before saying what is wholly obvious about CT’s post and therefore perspective, mind, well, he is a flagrant liar, and addressed catherine and Nancy Bennett as if they are wholly naive and worse. The only evidence of worseness so far is CT, who is trying to communicate wholly bogus propaganda and therefore makes him- or her-self seem to very likely be working for the wickedly evil elite oppressing the poor, supporting a coup d’etat via foreign aggressors and therefore via war of aggression, against a govt that was definitely and strongly elected in democratic, true democracy terms.

    CT is a liar and only trying to treat others as if they’re all idiot enough to believe his or her lies. And this makes CT the murderer and supporter thereof; NOT Jean-Juste, who definitely is NO murderer and was fraudulently made the falsely alleged murderer of Jean Roche. Jean-Juste has no need to go back to the Roche family, for he already went to them before having left Haiti to receive medical care in the U.S.; because of his leukemia.

    Maybe CT is the person who murdered Jean Roche. It is certainly no less acceptable to allege that CT committed this heinous crime, than it is to falsely, grotesquely, and very surrealistically claim that Jean-Juste is the guilty person. Definitely more likely to be CT, than Jean-Juste.

    :))

  5. Capois Thomas said on August 29th, 2007 at 1:57am #

    Mike Corbeil, you do not have to attack me. Infact, you should attack the truth. you need to understand a litttle about the Haitian’
    law,criminel and civil codes. G.J.J was legally in Federal Prison for the murder of Jack Roche~~ NOT MOI!!! The Republic of Haiti observed the articles: 19 and 21 of the constitution and articles 3, 5, and 25(1) of UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTST to released Gerard Jean- Juste temporarily for medical care only. Based on the facts and the Haitian’ laws, Jean-Juste is a Federal prisoner and he’s the property of the Republic of Haiti~~ NOT MOI!!! You remind me of SNECA in
    A.D. 57 – who was the turtor and defender of emperor Nuro.
    Read the truth below

    Jacques Roche in happier times

    Once again, the nefarious pro-Aristide forces are conspiring to misinform the public about the macabre role Reverend Jean-Juste and his kidnapping squads have played in these past few weeks’ horrible events, including the assassination of journalist Jacques Roche. It is particularly telling that the pro-Aristide camp, caught in its plot to have Jacques Roche killed simply for having been associated to the “Groupe des 184″, would then unleash a public relations campaign for the purpose of whitewashing their authorship, moral if not physical, of the Jacques Roche murder and then bizarrely associating themselves with Jacques Roche once they realized the magnitude of the gaffe their goons had committed.

    In this respect, the total incompetence of the current provisional authorities explains why there has been no attempt to discredit this malicious campaign and why Rev. Jean-Juste is now able to portray himself as a victim once again for having committed the “crime” of attending his “cousin” Jacques Roche’s funeral. Let us now examine the sequence of events that have led to the arrest of Jean-Juste and to the flurry of emails from
    Aristide apologists trying to deflect the attention away from their involvement in Jacques Roche’s murder:

    July 14, 2005

    The body of journalist Jacques Roche, who had been kidnapped on July 10 is found in Delmas 4. Jacques Roche had been tortured before being executed: his arms were broken, his tongue had been ripped out, and his body bore marks of extreme corporal punishment. He was killed by several gun shots in the mouth. [1] [2]
    Jacques Roche was not simply a dedicated journalist; he was also a talented poet and a passionate lover of Haiti. He believed in social justice and had militated for many changes, including the unconditional
    cancellation of Haiti’s foreign debt and the fight against the free zone established unilaterally by Aristide in Maribahoux (North East.)

    Jacques Roche’s body found in Delmas 4

    According to press reports, his kidnappers took issue with his role
    to host a radio show about civil society, sponsored by the “Groupe des
    184.” This led to their decision to assassinate him despite his family
    having made a partial payment of $10,000 on the ransom they had
    requested. [3]

    He had become, in the eyes of his kidnappers, an enemy of Jean-Bertrand
    Aristide and of Lavalas and therefore had to be eliminated.

    July 17, 2005

    In one of her signature diatribes, lawyer Marguerite Laurent, a pro-Aristide apologist and his chief defender in the United States, puts in context the death of Jacques Roche and explains why it was understandable; she says in essence that the current wave of kidnappings are in retribution for the kidnapping of “democracy” when Jean-Bertrand Aristide left power. She writes:

    The kidnappings in Haiti for political and economic purposes began with the kidnapping of Democracy by the powerful Coup d’Etat nations of the US, Canada and France, intent on imposing privatization, neoliberalism in Haiti, no matter the will of the people, the nation nor its duly elected representative. Last Thursday, July 14, 2005, Jacques Roche, a well-known cultural and sport news reporter for Le Matin, and
    television host of a show on “civil society” issues for Group of 184, who had been kidnapped on July 10, 2005, was found dead. His tortured and bullet ridden body was found still handcuffed,
    [...]
    Let’s begin by questioning WHY Jacques Roche was killed? In sum, Roche’s death is the fruit of a poison tree that must first be uprooted before justice can ring in Haiti. It’s the fruit of an ongoing international crime of kidnapping democracy begun with the kidnapping of President Aristide from Haiti. As a friend wrote to me today, “The handcuffs (left on Roches body) already told us WHO did it. I can’t imagine slum dwellers possessing handcuffs, and if they did, having enough to leave them on a dead body. We are dealing with really evil people.” Moreover, according to an AHP news report “People close to the cultural journalist condemned his execution and declared that if they had received support from some sectors they didn’t name, to complete the ransom, the victim’s life would have probably been saved….One of his collaborators, Roudy Sanon, who was involved in the negotiations with the kidnappers, declared that it was his work colleagues who helped to get the 10.000 dollars given to the kidnappers. He also deplored that the Police General Direction did not help to get Jacques Roche’s release, despite the fact that it had enough clues to help, he said. “This authority of the police is therefore responsible on this level of his death, Roudy Sanon said on a private radio station of the capital.” [4]

    In a few paragraphs, Marguerite Laurent manages to mangle the truth, turn the events of Jacques Roche’s death on their head, and turn his employers into the ones responsible for his death all in one fell swoop:

    Lie #1: Slum dwellers do not possess handcuffs. Marguerite Laurent chooses to ignore that a large number of Site Soley criminals were enlisted in the last two Haitian National Police classes under Aristide (at his request) and were let go after his departure because of their shameful criminal records. In addition, a number of policemen linked to Lavalas have been arrested recently for their involvement in kidnappings and murders. It is not that difficult to figure where the handcuffs might have come from. And it is possible to buy handcuffs in Haiti today from private shops. Dany Toussaint, another murderer linked to Lavalas until he split with Aristide, sold such goodies at his store recently.

    Lie #2: Jacques Roche did not receive support from some sectors that might have saved him. Jacques Roche’s kidnapping was not about ransom. The kidnappers went though the masquerade to make it appear as such. His political death had been pre-ordained, and no amount of money would have saved him from his certain execution. Let’s remember one clear point: Jacques Roche was assassinated for having collaborated with Groupe des 184″, not because his family could not come up with the ransom. The vast majority of kidnappings in Haiti has been settled for much less than $10,000. So to pretend that his employers could have saved him simply by contributing money is a lie.

    Lie #3 – The Haitian Police is responsible for his death. Roudy Sanon, AHP and Marguerite Laurent should hang their heads in shame for propagating such a lie. The police explained very clearly that they had leads, but not enough information to quickly react to the murder. [5] This was confirmed when they arrested Roger Etienne, one of Jacques Roche’s murderers, who explained that he was constantly being moved. Beyond the obvious lies, Marguerite Laurent’s obvious message, though the words of a “friend”, is that only the murderous” regime of Latortue could have killed Jacques Roche, but certainly not the “peaceful” gangs that are terrorizing the slum dwellers she was talking about. Even more ominous is the message, subsequently picked up by Gerard Jean-Juste, that the “kidnapping” of Aristide on February 29, 2004, justifies the wave of such crimes in Haiti today and that only his return will end the wave. If that is the case, then isn’t it a clear acknowledgement of WHO is responsible for the kidnappings? After all, it is such a poisonous tree … but who planted it in the first place?

    July 20, 2005

    In an interview on Radio Kiskeya, Rev. Jean-Juste picks up on the theme of Aristide’s kidnapping as being the first instance of this crime. His message: since our leader was the victim of a kidnapping, we Lavalas certainly cannot be responsible for this type of crime. But he went on to state that the end of the violence from below depends on the end of the violence from above. [6]

    What is then the violence from below that he is referring to? Isn’t it the kidnappings, murders and rapes that the pro-Lavalas gangs have been perpetrating, not only on Haitian society as a whole but especially on the residents of the slums in which they have taken residence? We should be under no illusion that, despite the class warfare message that is being spread by Marguerite Laurent and Gerard Jean-Juste, the majority of the victims of violence of any sort in Haiti today are poor. And contrary to what they would have us believe, the perpetrators for the most part are the pro-Lavalas gangs that were armed and trained by Aristide and his henchmen, like Paul Raymond, René Civil, Hermione Leonard, et al from 2001 until his departure.

    As a side note, what is most disingenuous from Marguerite Laurent is her systematic silence on one of the worst crimes perpetrated by gangs like that of the late Dred Wilme’s: rape. The principal victims of crimes in Site Soley, Solino, Bel Air, Delmas 2, Grande Ravine, etc. are women (primarily young) and even in some cases pre-pubescent girls who are preyed upon by depraved gang members who have turned to a new form of bodily mutilation to inflict further pain on their rape victims: the incrustation of parts of plastic or metal in their penises. [7] This was the case, for example, of Dred Wilme’s lieutenant Emmanuel Coriolan (aka “Dom Laj”) who underwent “surgery” while in jail to have his penis augmented with bits of plastic and metal. He had it done to better torture any female kidnapping victim that his gang would seize.

    July 21, 2005

    Jacques Roche in his coffin

    Jacques Roche’s funeral is marked by moving tributes from speakers from all walks of life. But it will also be remembered for Rev. Jean-Juste’s audacious attempt to officiate at the ceremony – when he can be considered as a moral author of Roche’s murder – and the subsequent false statements which have revealed his talent as a pathological liar and the unethical lapses of a certain William Quigley, attorney-at-law.

    Before the funeral, Jean-Juste had an interview with Amy Goodman of Democracy Now! where he stated:

    So right now, today I’m on my way to attend the funeral of Jacques Roche, a prominent journalist who had been kidnapped and killed. And I’m going to show myself because his parents are from my town, and at a certain time, one of his relatives saved my life. I was being attacked by a mob, and then Mrs. Roche came out, saw me, and get me off the gangs and sheltered me at her house. So this is why I feel that I should be here regardless that they keep accusing Lavalas people of participating in the killings. [8]

    What happened at the funeral? Rev. Jean-Juste and his attorney William Quigley, decided to participate at the ceremony. Notwithstanding the gall of Jean-Juste, the fact that he came dressed in full priest garb and had every intention of officiating at the ceremony can only be interpreted as an act of provocation or sheer folly or both. Soon after his arrival, Jean-Juste is set upon by a group of incenses students (not 184 people as falsely reported by Bill Quigley [9]) After a few minutes of mayhem, Jean-Juste and Quigley are led away by a group of CIVPOL officers and are then picked up by the Haitian police that take them to the Petionville precinct. Jean-Juste will later be arrested, but not Quigley.

    July 22, 2005

    An article written by Bill Quigley and entitled “Haitian Priest Assaulted by Mob at Funeral and Arrested for Murder ” [10] is posted on http://www.blogger.com/www.commondreams.org. Never mind the fact that Bill Quigley is not a journalist. Never mind the fact that Bill Quigley is Jean-Juste’s attorney. Why this “op-ed” piece, at best, is posted as a news article is beyond me. However, what is most striking is the number of lies and innuendos that Bill Quigley manages to inject in such a short article:

    Jean-Juste was beaten by 184 supporters.

    Roche deserved to die because he worked with “the people calling
    themselves the group of 184, who overthrew by force the democratically
    elected government of President Aristide, the leader of the Lavalas
    party, in February 2004.” [11]

    Jean-Juste is a cousin of Jacques Roche.

    In Quigley’s words:

    On Thursday July 21, 2005, Fr. Gerard Jean-Juste went to St. Pierre’s Catholic Church to be one of the priests participating in the funeral of Haitian journalist Jacques Roche. Fr. Jean-Juste is a cousin of the Roche family and members of the Roche family protected him from a mob earlier in his life. He went to express spiritual comfort and reconciliation to the family. [12]

    Already, there is an obvious discrepancy between Jean-Juste and his attorney on the exact relationship of Jean-Juste to Jacques Roche:

    a) Jean-Juste: Roche’s parents are from my town (Cavaillon)

    b) Quigley: Jean-Juste is a cousin of Roche.

    July 23, 2005

    Jacques Roche’s mother grieving

    On Saturday, July 23, Jacques Roche’s mother breaks her silence on Radio Kiskeya to comment specifically on her so-called “relationship” to Rev. Jean-Juste [13]. She refutes any kinship to the Reverend, thereby proving that all of the comments made by Jean-Juste and Quigley were fabrications. She specifically states that:

    She has no relationship to Rev. Jean-Juste

    She has never met Jean-Juste, neither now nor when he was a
    child.

    While her husband was from Cavaillon, she is from Cap-haitien and
    has never set foot in Cavaillon.

    Therefore, she could not possibly have saved Jean-Juste from a
    mob that attacked him and then sheltered him at her house when he was a
    child, since she never lived in Cavaillon.

    July 24, 2005

    In his “Common Sense”column entitled “Extremism in defence of freedom …” [14] , Jamaican journalist John Maxwell, an unabashed Aristide apologist, writes the following:

    [...]
    [Gerard Jean-Juste] was then arrested, charged with something that happened in Haiti while he was in Miami, released, then beaten up when he attended a funeral, re-arrested and thrown into prison, this time,
    allegedly, for the murder of the journalist whose funeral he was attending.
    [...]

    In one cute sentence, John Maxwell has managed to take out of context the meaning and importance of Jean-Juste’s presence at the funeral of Jacques Roche. More importantly, he has now conveyed to his unsuspecting readers the incredible “injustice” meted out to the good Reverend. John Maxwell, no lawyer he, conveniently forgets to explain to his readers that there is such a thing in Haitian law as “accusation par la clameur publique” [15] and that there are antecedents, given Jean-Juste’s involvement with the pro-Lavalas gangs that have been organizing these deadly kidnappings. At least, Maxwell had the decency not to write about Jean-Juste’s “close family relationship” to Jacques Roche. And I am sure that his skilled command of the English language (unlike mine) will carry in any discussion about what he really meant. And I am doubly sure that the coterie of Aristide friends that have formed the Dessalines-Boukman Society in Jamaica will no doubt approve of Maxwell’s journalistic (mis)carriage of justice.

    One of the problems with all anglophone journalists, and with Marguerite Laurent despite her Haitian ancestry and her work in Haiti, is that they still do not have a good understanding (if at all) of the differences between common law and Haitian law. It is high time they started learning something positive to better defend their heroes.

    In conclusion, the habitual liars and apologists have once again unmasked themselves in protecting an individual who had no reason to attend the funeral, nor any decency to stay away from the family of the
    man to whose death he contributed, directly or indirectly.

    Jean-Claude Jasmin

    July 24, 2005

    NOTES AND REFERENCES

    [1] http://www.alterpresse.org/article.php3?id_article=2829

    [2] http://tinyurl.com/2q66zk

    [3] http://www.radiokiskeya.com/article.php3?id_article=985

    [4] Marguerite Laurent email dated July 17, 2005 entitled
    “[ezilidanto] Jacque Roche’s death used by “Council of the Wise” to
    criminalize & bar Lavalas from elections, Jean-Juste persecution
    increases, UN Massacre continues, et al…..”

    [5] http://www.radiokiskeya.com/article.php3?id_article=992

    [6] http://www.radiokiskeya.com/article.php3?id_article=1009

    [7] http://www.metropolehaiti.com/metropole/full_une_fr.phtml?id=10363

    [8] http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=05/07/21/1332235&mode=thread&tid=25

    [9] http://www.commondreams.org/headlines05/0722-08.htm

    [10] http://www.commondreams.org/headlines05/0722-08.htm

    [11] http://www.commondreams.org/headlines05/0722-08.htm

    [12] http://www.commondreams.org/headlines05/0722-08.htm

    [13] http://www.radiokiskeya.com/article.php3?id_article=1024

    [14] http://tinyurl.com/2lllqj

    [15]
    http://ledroitcriminel.free.fr/dictionnaire/lettre_c/lettre_c_ci.htm
    – Droit positif. La clameur publique, faisant immédiatement
    suite à un crime ou à un délit, fait naître
    une situation d’urgence qui justifie l’ouverture d’une Enquête de
    flagrance* et autorise l’Arrestation* de la personne poursuivie (art.
    53 C.pr.pén.).
    Garraud (Traité de l’instruction judiciaire) : La clameur
    publique, c’est l’accusation jetée au public, l’appel qui lui
    est fait, n’y eût-il que le blessé ou le premier
    témoin survenu qui poussât le cri.

    Decocq Montreuil et Buisson (Le droit de la police) : La clameur
    publique est constituée d’un cri (Au voleur, p.ex.), non pas
    d’une rumeur, mais il n’est pas indispensable qu’elle contienne une
    accusation précise (le cri : Arrêtez-le suffit). Le
    législateur voir en elle un indice suffisant d’une
    présomption d’imputabilité d’une infraction flagrante.